Thyroid, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism: definitions, symptoms, treatments

You find in this video and in this article:

- the definition of Thyroid

- the functions of the Thyroid

- symptoms of hypothyroidism

- symptoms of hyperthyroidism

- the diagnosis of a problem of thyroid

- the treatments ofhypothyroidism

You should know that the thyroid is a gland which is at the level of our neck.

Its main function is to produce and secrete hormones (chemical messengers circulating through blood) thyroid calledT3(triotyronine) and T4(Thyroxine).

These hormones are very important for the proper functioning of our organism, because they intervene in many functions, but also in different metabolisms (transformation of substances within the organism).

The release of thyroid hormones is under the influence of another hormone called Tsh or thyreostimulin. This is produced at the level of the pituitary gland, a small gland that is in our brain.

It should be noted that the TSH has a retrocontrol negative on the production of T3 and T4.

When the rate of thyroîdian hormones becomes too great, there is a reduction in TSH, on the contrary a drop in thyroîdian hormones leads to an increase in TSH.

Thyroid hormones have many roles in our body, they allow in particular:

  • The growth in children
  • The proper functioning of muscles, of the kidneys, of the system digestive and some bone marrow bone (substance that is at the levels of long and flat bones, it ensures the production of blood cells such as red blood cells, platelets, ...)
  • Control of the temperature of our body
  • The balance carbohydrate, protein and phosphocalcic

When the thyroid works excessively, it releases a large amount of thyroid hormones, which causes a hyperthyroidism.

The symptoms of hyperthyroidism are very characteristic, we find:

  • A shortness of breath, of the palpitations, a significant increase in heart rate during an effort
  • A loss of weight While the person's appetite remains unchanged
  • An increase in thirst
  • An increase in intestinal transit and the appearance of diarrhea frequent
  • Of the disruption from cycle menstrual in women
  • Mood disorders as well as nervousness, of the'aggressiveness and of emotivity
  • Heat intolerance and sweating important at hand levels
  • A reduction of the strength and mass of muscles Especially at the thigh level

These symptoms can also be present in different diseases such as Basedow disease where the main sign is exophthalmia (protruding eyes).

Conversely, when the thyroid does not work enough, the production of thyroid hormones becomes too low, which leads to a hypothyroidism.

The symptoms of hypothyroidism are:

  • A increase from weight
  • A slow-down movements
  • A cold skin with an appearance rough
  • A face pale Of type puffy
  • A voice hoarse
  • Hair brittle that fall easily
  • Of the drowsiness and behavioral disorders as well as indifference, of the depressed and difficulties in expressing themselves
  • Of the constipation
  • A reduction in rhythm heart
  • An increase in the rate of cholesterol

To assess the functioning of the thyroid, just make a socket of blood And to analyze the levels of thyroid hormones (T3, T4), but also of TSH.

The scintigraphy can also be requested by the doctor. This is a medical imaging examination to observe the proper functioning as well as the morphology of the thyroid. During this examination, a radioactive product is administered to the patient, it is specifically deposited at the thyroid level. After a few hours the radioactive product naturally eliminates by the body.

To overcome the thyroid dysfunctions, treatments exist. Their objective is to restore the balance of thyroîdian hormones by filling deficiencies such as levothyroxine or by limiting the excess of thyroid hormones.

Dr Noura Marrai (Doctor of Pharmacy, YouTuber Health, creator of the health well-being Pharmaquiz) application

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